Let’s face it, the construction of roads has been an engineering challenge basically since the wheel was invented. And while there have been some incredible strides made in the development of roads, road construction and repair are still topics that are spoken with apprehension and concern.

There are several kinds of road surfaces and road repair techniques that are used today. Here are a few of the most commonly used:


Since the early 1920s, asphalt has been the primary kind of road surface construction. The asphalt construction technique involves putting a layer of thick gravel on top. This type of road construction involves low noise when being laid, and offers construction companies a relatively low cost in terms of materials. Additionally, asphalt is also one of the easiest road surfaces to deal with when it comes to maintenance and repairs.

Perhaps the biggest disadvantage of the asphalt construction techniques is that it is not environmentally friendly. It is also less strong, and less durable than other road construction techniques.


Concrete is a highly popular choice and solid material for road construction. It is commonly used for city roads and building walls. Major types of road surfaces that use concrete include JRCP, CRCP, and JPCP.
Concrete is also one of the stronger options when comparing road construction materials. It is often used when repairing cracks and potholes.

Perhaps the biggest disadvantage to using concrete is that it is quite an expensive material. Concrete also takes a longer time to work with, causing a longer construction time.

Tar and Chip

Tar and chip roads are used primarily in rural areas, as opposed to big cities with lots of traffic. With a shorter lifespan than other options discussed here.

These roads a constructed by laying tar on the road and then covered with a stone which provides a wear surface.

These roads are not designed to handle a ton of traffic or the hustle and bustle of busy city streets. Generally, tar and chip roads have to be maintained ever 5 years or so.

Earth Roads

Earth roads are perhaps best known for their place in rural communities. They are made of solely dirt and gravel and are not designed to handle a lot of traffic at all. When traffic does increase, or there is enough pressure placed on the local government by residents, these roads are sometimes converted to slightly strong tar and chip surfaces.

Due to their lack of stability, earth roads require a great deal of maintenance.

Techniques Used in Road Surface Maintenance and Repair

The composite technique is used in the rehabilitation, maintenance, and repairing of either concrete or asphalt road surfaces. Typically composite is employed through one of two methods, it is the combination of asphalt and concrete materials. And when laying down a new road surface asphalt material used to place it over a damaged road surface and pavement of road cracks.

There are three kinds of construction methods that are used when repairing or recycling distressed or damaged road surfaces.
– Full depth replacement
– Hot or cold prepared road recycling
– Rubberizing

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